Past participles are forms of a verb that are used with the passive voice and with the present perfect tense. Other times, these participles are also called the third form or V3 of the verb. In other words, V1 is the base form, V2 is the past tense, and V3 is the past participle. However, there are two types in English, irregular past participles and regular past participles.
In order to make a participle from a regular verb, just add “ed” to the base form. For example:
- The participle of create is created.
- The participle of need is needed.
Unlike regular verbs, there is no formula to make a participle from an irregular verb, unfortunately. You just have to memorize them. You’ll notice some patterns though.
For instance, many irregular past participles end with the letter “n” such as: given, eaten, spoken, and taken.
Also, some irregular past participles stay the same as the base form, like: come, put, cut, and run.
Therefore, the best way to learn the irregular past participles is to start practicing! In these three exercises, try to remember the participle form. Look at the table below if you forget.
Practice 66 irregular past participles in English
In this section, you can practice irregular past participles in English with the three sets of flashcards.
Set #1 of irregular past participles
Learn 22 verbs (be – get) and their V3 forms.
Set #2 of irregular verbs and participles
Practice 22 verbs (give – see) and their past participles.
Set #3 of V3 forms
This activity has 22 verbs (sell – write) that you can memorize.
List of irregular verbs
Unfortunately, there is no formula to learn these irregular verbs and their forms in English. You just have to memorize them. In this table, the first column is the base verb, the second column is the past tense, and the third column is the past participle. Try to
been become became become blow blew blown break broke broken bring brought brought build built built buy bought bought catch caught caught come came come cut cut cut do did done draw drew drawn drink drank drunk drive drove driven eat ate eaten fall fell fallen feel felt felt fight fought fought find found found fly flew flown forget forgot forgotten get got gotten give gave given go went gone hang hung hung have had had hear heard heard hide hid hidden hit hit hit hold held held hurt hurt hurt leave left left lend lent lent lose lost lost make made made meet met met put put put quit quit quit read read read ride rode ridden rise rose risen run run run say said said see saw seen sell sold sold send sent sent shake shook shaken shine shone shone shoot shot shot show showed shown sing sang sung sleep slept slept speak spoke spoken spend spent spent spread spread spread stand stood stood steal stole stolen swim swam swum take took taken tell told told think thought thought throw threw thrown wake woke woken wear wore worn win won won write wrote written
Read this post to practice using the past participles with the present perfect tense. And, you can learn more about using this grammar topic with this article.