Past participles are forms of a verb that are used with the passive voice and with the present perfect tense. Other times, these participles are also called the third form or V3 of the verb. In other words, V1 is the base form, V2 is the past tense, and V3 is the past participle. However, there are two types in English, irregular past participles and regular past participles.

In order to make a participle from a regular verb, just add “ed” to the base form. For example:

  • The participle of create is created.
  • The participle of need is needed.

Unlike regular verbs, there is no formula to make a participle from an irregular verb, unfortunately. You just have to memorize them. You’ll notice some patterns though.

For instance, many irregular past participles end with the letter “n” such as: given, eaten, spoken, and taken.

Also, some irregular past participles stay the same as the base form, like: come, put, cut, and run.

Therefore, the best way to learn the irregular past participles is to start practicing! In these three exercises, try to remember the participle form. Look at the table below if you forget.

Practice 66 irregular past participles in English

In this section, you can practice irregular past participles in English with the three sets of flashcards.

Set #1 of irregular past participles

Learn 22 verbs (be – get) and their V3 forms.

Set #2 of irregular verbs and participles

Practice 22 verbs (give – see) and their past participles.

Set #3 of V3 forms

This activity has 22 verbs (sell – write) that you can memorize.


List of irregular verbs

Unfortunately, there is no formula to learn these irregular verbs and their forms in English. You just have to memorize them. In this table, the first column is the base verb, the second column is the past tense, and the third column is the past participle. Try to

Base Verb
Past Tense
Past Participle
be was
become became become
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
buy bought bought
catch caught caught
come came come
cut cut cut
do did done
draw drew drawn
drink drank drunk
drive drove driven
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forget forgot forgotten
get got gotten
give gave given
go went gone
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held  held
hurt hurt hurt
leave left left
lend lent lent
lose lost lost
make made made
meet met met
put put put
quit quit quit
read read read
ride rode ridden
rise rose risen
run run run
say said said
see saw seen
sell sold sold
send sent sent
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
sing sang sung
sleep slept slept
speak spoke spoken
spend spent spent
spread spread spread
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
swim swam swum
take took taken
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written


Read this post to practice using the past participles with the present perfect tense. And, you can learn more about using this grammar topic with this article.