Past participles are forms of a verb that are used with the passive voice and with the present perfect tense. Other times, these participles are also called the third form or V3 of the verb. In other words, V1 is the base form, V2 is the past tense, and V3 is the past participle. However, there are two types in English, irregular past participles and regular past participles.

In order to make a participle from a regular verb, just add “ed” to the base form. For example:

  • The participle of create is created.
  • The participle of need is needed.

Unlike regular verbs, there is no formula to make a participle from an irregular verb, unfortunately. You just have to memorize them. You’ll notice some patterns though.

For instance, many irregular past participles end with the letter “n” such as: given, eaten, spoken, and taken.

Also, some irregular past participles stay the same as the base form, like: come, put, cut, and run.

Therefore, the best way to learn the irregular past participles is to start practicing! In these three exercises, try to remember the participle form. Look at the table below if you forget.

Practice 66 irregular past participles in English

In this section, you can practice irregular past participles in English with the three sets of flashcards.

Set #1 of irregular past participles

Learn 22 verbs (be – get) and their V3 forms.

Set #2 of irregular verbs and participles

Practice 22 verbs (give – see) and their past participles.

Set #3 of V3 forms

This activity has 22 verbs (sell – write) that you can memorize.

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List of irregular verbs

Unfortunately, there is no formula to learn these irregular verbs and their forms in English. You just have to memorize them. In this table, the first column is the base verb, the second column is the past tense, and the third column is the past participle. Try to

Base Verb
V1
Past Tense
V2
Past Participle
V3
bewas
were
been
becomebecamebecome
blowblewblown
breakbrokebroken
bringbroughtbrought
buildbuiltbuilt
buyboughtbought
catchcaughtcaught
comecamecome
cutcutcut
dodiddone
drawdrewdrawn
drinkdrankdrunk
drivedrovedriven
eatateeaten
fallfellfallen
feelfeltfelt
fightfoughtfought
findfoundfound
flyflewflown
forgetforgotforgotten
getgotgotten
givegavegiven
gowentgone
hanghunghung
havehadhad
hearheardheard
hidehidhidden
hithithit
holdheld held
hurthurthurt
leaveleftleft
lendlentlent
loselostlost
makemademade
meetmetmet
putputput
quitquitquit
readreadread
rideroderidden
riseroserisen
runrunrun
saysaidsaid
seesawseen
sellsoldsold
sendsentsent
shakeshookshaken
shineshoneshone
shootshotshot
showshowedshown
singsangsung
sleepsleptslept
speakspokespoken
spendspentspent
spreadspreadspread
standstoodstood
stealstolestolen
swimswamswum
taketooktaken
telltoldtold
thinkthoughtthought
throwthrewthrown
wakewokewoken
wearworeworn
winwonwon
writewrotewritten

Read this post to practice using the past participles with the present perfect tense. And, you can learn more about using this grammar topic with this article.